Author Archives: Greatkids


Today we are going to put a spotlight on a topic of critical importance to all parents of newborns…reducing the risks of Sudden Unexpected Infant Death (SUID). To enhance our understanding around this issue, we will review recent research and statistics along with recommendations from the experts. We will also talk about Baby Boxes, a new trend in US hospitals to reduce infant mortality. At Great Kids, Inc. this topic is a priority; thus, we will conclude today’s discussion by reviewing the specific Growing Great Kids Curriculum tools and resources that parents can incorporate to prevent SUID.

Let’s get started with some definitions. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines SUID as the death of an infant less than 1-year of age that occurs suddenly and unexpectedly, and whose cause of death is not immediately obvious before investigation. In 2015, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported 3,700 SUIDs in the United States. SUIDs are reported as one of the three following types:

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

The sudden death of an infant less than 1-year of age that cannot be explained after a thorough investigation is conducted, including a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and a review of the clinical history. About 1,600 infants died of SIDS in 2015. SIDS is the leading cause of death among infants 1 to 12 months old.

Unknown cause
The sudden death of an infant less than 1-year old that remains undetermined because one or more parts of the investigation were not completed. About 1,200 infants died of Unknown Cause in 2015.

Accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed
In 2015, 900 deaths occurred due to accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed. The sudden death of an infant less than 1-year of age can happen because of

  • Suffocation by soft bedding—for example, when a pillow or waterbed covers an infant’s nose and mouth.
  • Overlay—when another person rolls on top of or against the infant while sleeping.
  • Wedging or entrapment—when an infant is wedged between two objects such as a mattress and wall, bed frame, or furniture.
  • Strangulation—for example, when an infant’s head and neck become caught between crib railings.

According to CDC data and statistics, the SUID rate has been in decline over the last 25+ years.   Initiatives such as Safe Sleep Recommendations and Back to Sleep campaigns by the American Academy of Pediatrics reduced the SUID rates significantly between 1992-2009. However, the SUID rate increased slightly from 87.5 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2014 to 92.6 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2015 (, February 1, 2017).

In October 2016, the American Academy of Pediatrics announced the New Safe Sleep Recommendations, which include

  • Place the baby on his or her back on a firm sleep surface such as a crib or bassinet with a tight-fitting sheet.
  • Avoid use of soft bedding, including crib bumpers, blankets, pillows, and soft toys. The crib should be bare.
  • Share a bedroom with parents, but not the same sleeping surface, preferably until the baby turns 1 but at least for the first six months. Room-sharing decreases the risk of SIDS by as much as 50 percent.
  • Avoid baby's exposure to smoke, alcohol, and illicit drugs (, October 16, 2016).

Now let’s talk about a new trend in US hospitals intended to reduce SUID risks. Several hospitals across the nation now provide free cardboard boxes where babies can sleep safely, along with education resources and basic baby necessities. This year the state of New Jersey plans to distribute105,000 boxes; Ohio, 140,000; Alabama, 60,000 (, March 2017) along with hospitals in other major cities including Philadelphia and San Antonio, Texas. According to, proponents of baby boxes say the combination of educational tools and free resources will reduce America’s infant mortality rate (, March 2017).

Here are the highlights of a few of the many GGK tools and resources around this topic.

Growing Great Kids Prenatal

Unit 3: Module 7-The Baby is Coming Home…Get Ready!

Preparations for bringing the baby home, including supplies for basic care such as sleeping

Unit 4: Module 6-Cultural Influences on Caring for Infants.

Explores the family’s cultural influences on infant sleeping practices

Growing Great Kids B-12 Months Manual

0-3 Months: Basic Care – Sleeping. 

Discusses normal sleep patterns for infants, explores parents’ opinions regarding sleeping, provides researched information regarding prevention of SIDS, and provides infant sleeping safety guidelines

0-3 Months: Basic Care – Infant Safety Tips Handout.

Explores Safe Sleep Guidelines and information on SIDS

7-9 Months: Basic Care – Home Safety Checklist Handout.

Encourages parents to complete a home safety checklist and remove safety hazards

Check them out! These are great resources to share with parents. While SIDS can happen to anyone, it is also true that every family can make their baby’s sleep environment safer through simple preventative measures.

Works Cited:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2017). About SUID and SIDS. Retrieved from

American Academy of Pediatrics (2016). AAP Announces New Safe Sleep Recommendations to Protect Against SIDS, Sleep-Related Infant Deaths. Retrieved from (2017). Ohio becomes 2nd state to offer free baby boxes to curb infant deaths. Retrieved from (2017). Hospitals Give Away Baby Boxes to Curb Infant Mortality. Retrieved from

Photo by Andrew Branch on Unsplash



nurpalah-dee-226216 (1)Not all praise is equal! Most of us have probably heard this phrase, but do we all know what it really means? Today’s blog will discuss the power of praising and its impact on child development. We will start our discussion by highlighting the 4 Steps to Success Daily Do, one of the most important strategies in the Growing Great Kids Curriculum. It is designed to provide parents the framework for helping their baby learn new things while experiencing fun and encouragement for their efforts. As with all our blog posts, we will review recent research and literature to support our discussion. Our conclusion will include curriculum recommendations to enhance parents’ skills in using praise to recognize the efforts and accomplishments of their children.

The 4 Steps to Success is a set of essential parenting skills designed to promote children’s self-esteem and motivation for learning. This strategy consists of four steps that, when incorporated into daily routines and family activities throughout every day, results in children feeling valued and competent. The idea is to leave them with the feeling that the effort they put into something is as important as the accomplishment itself. The fourth step in the 4 Steps to Success strategy is about “Praising the Child’s Effort and Pointing Out What She Has Learned.” When parents lay the foundation for children feeling good about learning, they are also helping their child build positive self-esteem and confidence.

The 4 Steps to Success Daily Do offers multiple benefits for the child, the parents, and the community. Just to list a few:

  • Children are more able to concentrate on learning
  • Children and parents feel proud of their efforts and accomplishments
  • Both parents and children also learn to be “patient”, because they understand that learning takes practice and effort
  • Children and parents are encouraged to be persistent in figuring out solutions
  • Within their community there is a value for putting effort into learning and accomplishing common goals

Now let’s review some research behind the 4 Steps to Success Daily Do. Stanford University Professor Carol S. Dweck has done significant research on the topic of praise. According to Mueller and Dweck (1998), in comparing behaviors of children praised for intelligence (i.e. “You’re smart”) with those children praised for effort (i.e. “You worked hard!”), they found that children who experience praise for their effort display persistence, enjoyment, and continued performance in the face of challenges. This is because they learn to attribute their performance to the effort, rather than to a stable ability, which is how praise for intelligence is often perceived. In other words, children who have been praised for their effort will interpret subsequent poor performance as indicating a temporary lapse in effort rather than as a deficit in intelligence (Mueller & Dweck, 1998).

In 2013, Elizabeth A. Gunderson and a group of colleagues conducted a study revealing similar findings to those concluded by Dr. Dweck regarding the impact of praising the effort. This study showed that praising children’s efforts encourages motivation to engage in challenging tasks and the ability to generate strategies for improvement. They concluded that children who received praise for their efforts tend to value learning over performance, view efforts as positive, and interpret a challenging situation as an opportunity to learn rather than an obstacle (Gunderson,, 2013).  This literature helps us understand that praising the effort plays a key role in positive parenting by creating possibilities for learning and motivation for achievement.

The Growing Great Kids Curriculum includes hundreds of child development activities that are connected to the 4 Steps to Success Daily Do. Each activity is crafted to support parents and children in building self-esteem and motivation for learning, while focusing attention on lots of opportunities to praise effort.  At Great Kids, Inc. we believe that every parent has the power to set their child up to feel confident, to be a good learner, and to feel successful in school.

Let’s not forget that “praising the effort” is not just about children; it applies to all of us in any role. As a home visitor, we encourage you to take every opportunity to point out parents’ efforts for growing their parenting style and practicing new parenting skills and/or life skills. Support them by praising their efforts and acknowledging the challenges they faced. This will foster motivation for continued learning and growth of new skills in the future.

We will conclude with a note that a man wrote to Dr. Dweck after he read some of her work (Dweck, 2007):

Dear Dr. Dweck,

                It was painful to read your chapter…as I recognized myself therein.

               As a child, I was a member of The Gifted Child Society and continually praised for my                            intelligence.  Now, after a lifetime of not living up to my potential (I’m 49), I’m learning to                     apply myself to a task. And also, to see failure not as a sign of stupidity but as lack of                             experience and skills. Your chapter helped me see myself in a new light.

                                                                                Seth Abrams

Works Cited:

Mueller, C. M., & Dweck, C. S. (1998). Praise for intelligence can undermine children's motivation and performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology: Attitudes and Social Cognition, 75(1), 33-52. doi:

Gunderson, E A., Gripshover, S.J., Dweck, C.S., Goldin-Meadow, S., Levine, S. (2013). Parent Praise to 1- to 3- Year-Olds Predicts Children’s Motivational Frameworks 5 Years Later. Child Development, Society for Research in Child Development, Inc. September/October 2013, Volume 84, Number 5, Pages 1526–1541. DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12064

Dweck, C. S. (2007). Mindset. The New Psychology of Success. How We Can Learn to Fulfill Our Potential. Ballantine Books, a division of Random House, Inc. New York.

“Vaccination is one of the best ways parents can protect infants, children, and teens from 16 potentially harmful diseases.  Vaccine-preventable diseases can be very serious, may require hospitalization, or even be deadly – especially in infants and young children” (CDC, For Parents: Vaccines for Children, 2016). Due to the importance of immunizations in children’s health and physical development, today we will explore this topic by referencing the latest research on immunization and the benefits of well-child visits. We’ll put a spotlight on The Growing Great Kids Curriculum tools and resources around this topic and discuss how to support parents to be proactive and responsive regarding their children’s health. We’ll wrap up today’s discussion with additional online resources that you may want to pass on to your families.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Immunization Survey found that the 2015 immunization rates for children aged 19-35 months sustained high coverage in the United States. More than 90% of children by age 2 years were up to date with vaccination against polio, hepatitis b; measles, mumps; rubella; and varicella. There were no significant coverage rate changes between 2014 and 2015 (CDC, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 2016).  Health care professionals feel that immunizations are one of the most effective health prevention strategies discovered in our society during the last century.  Other research indicates that the average life expectancy of US citizens increased by 30 years, primarily due to improvements in sanitation and development of vaccines and antimicrobial agents (Abramson and Pickering, 2002). National efforts and initiatives on vaccine education have resulted in the elimination of smallpox and polio from the United States.  It has also increased awareness around prevention of other serious diseases, including diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, hepatitis b, measles, mumps, and rubella. This has resulted in lower hospitalizations and deaths due to vaccine-preventable diseases, saving society more than $5 for each dollar spent on most of the vaccines that are recommended for children in the United States (Abramson and Pickering, 2002).

There is also some interesting information regarding immunization statistics provided by the Canadian Government. In 2013, the Childhood National Immunization Coverage Survey (cNICS) reported that most Canadian children, at age two, are immunized against vaccine preventable diseases including Polio 91%, DPT 77%, Hib 72%, MMR 89%, Varicella 73%, Meningococcal C 89%, and Pneumococcal 79%. The 2013 cNICS incorporated questions on parental knowledge, attitudes and beliefs related to vaccines and vaccination. This information allows the Canadian Government to identify trends over time in attitudes that may influence parental decisions regarding vaccination.  In 2013, the cNICS showed that 95% of parents believed that childhood vaccines are safe and 97% thought that vaccines are effective for keeping children’s health (Government of Canada, 2013).

Part of keeping children healthy is making sure that they are examined regularly by their Health Care Provider. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), parents know who they should go to when their child is sick, but pediatrician visits are just as important for healthy children. The focus during these visits should be on developmental milestones, immunizations, physical examinations, nutrition, safety, the child’s and family’s emotional well-being, general health education, and teaching about injury prevention (, 2015).  To support parents to maximize their well-child visits, the AAP developed age appropriate pre-visit questionnaires. These tools are designed to allow parents to prepare for asking questions and discussing concerns related to the child’s health. They also help parents to plan for well-child visits based on the timing of recommended immunizations.

Let’s take a few minutes now to discuss how the Growing Great Kids Curriculum supports practices related to immunizations, reaching out to health care services, regular monitoring of developmental milestones, and other related topics. For every three months of a child’s development, GGK incorporates a Module on Basic Care.   Just to highlight a sample of topics:

  • 0-3 months: When Baby is Sick or Needs Health Care; Signs of Illness
  • 4-6 months: Keeping Your Baby Healthy; Well Baby Care and Immunization
  • 7-9 months: Changing Needs for Home Safety
  • 10-12 months:  Keeping Your Baby Healthy; Well Baby Care and Immunization; Preventing Animal-Related Illnesses
  • 13-15 months: Routine and Responsive Health Care
  • 19-21 months: Checking in on Body Builders
  • 25-30 months: Growing Healthy Kids

Another GGK essential tool is the Body Builders Daily Do, a parenting skill set designed to support excellent physical development and health in children. Through the Home Visitor’s use of GGK, parents are supported as they practice this Daily Do and reinforce the four main components of physical development and health: good nutrition, responsive and preventive health care, daily exercise, and predictable and safe environments.

One of the most important features of the GGK Curriculum is that all Conversation Guides are designed to offer anticipatory guidance about health, safety, and nutrition.  This approach allows parents to engage in reflective and proactive practices that allow them to be more prepared for every stage of their baby’s development--- including knowing when it’s time for immunizations and well-child visits.

While immunizations are considered one of the major public health achievements of the 20th century, there are still some challenges to overcome in this arena.  Some of these challenges include increased educational awareness regarding various vaccine safety concerns, the increased costs of vaccines, and shortages of vaccine supply. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention regularly provides updates on these areas along with multiple tools and resources.

The following includes a list of tools provided by the CDC, check them out and pass them on to your families at

  • Immunization Schedules for Infants and Children (English and Spanish)
  • Immunization and Developmental Milestones
  • Interactive Make Your Immunization Schedule for Your Child
  • Immunization Tracker
  • Videos and Useful Lists
  • Infographics, Handouts, and Booklets
  • Parents’ Guide to Childhood Immunization Guide

The American Academy of Pediatrics provides the following online resources and tips, (, 2015):

  • Ask your healthcare provider.  He or she can give you the vaccine package insert or suggest other sources of information.
  • Call your local or state health department.
  • Contact the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC):

Works Cited:

The US Centers for Disease Control (2016). National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases: For Parents: Vaccines for Children. Retrieved from

Government of Canada (2013). Vaccine coverage in Canadian Children: Highlights from the 2013 childhood National Immunization Coverage Survey. Retrieved from

The US Centers for Disease Control (2016). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: Vaccination Coverage Among Children Aged 19-35 Months- United States, 2015. Retrieved from

Abramson, J.S. MD, Pickering, L.K. MD (2002). US Immunization Policy. Published by the Journal of the American Medical Association, Issue Volume 287(4) January 23/30, 2002 pp 505-509. (2015). Family Life: AAP Schedule of Well-Child Care Visits. Retrieved from

Today’s blog will highlight a topic that comes up in GGK Seminars quite frequently --- How to support 3-Generation Families. It’s not unusual for a home visitor to have several 3-Generation Families they visit who are looking for effective strategies for creating a healthier balance with care-giving tasks and relationships.  We will enhance today’s discussion with the latest, relevant research pertaining to this topic and conclude with exploring the associated Growing Great Families resources and tools.

For the purpose of this discussion, let’s get started with some definitions. The term 3-Generation Family refers to multigenerational family households where two or more adult generations live together under the same roof; this generally includes a grandparent, parent, and child. Our definition also embraces multigenerational families where grandparents have major influences in caretaking and raising small children, even though all generations are not living together.  According to the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP), there are strong indications that US and Canadian multigenerational living is on the rise. Approximately 51 million Americans, or 16.7 percent of the population, live in a house with at least two adult generations, or a grandparent and at least one other generation, under one roof. This trend is linked to cultures, such as Hispanic, Asian, and African American, who embrace multigenerational housing (, April 2013).

It’s interesting to note that the 2010 US Census indicated that 7.5 million children lived with a grandparent in 2010; that’s about 10 percent of all children in the United States.  Of these children, 4.9 million lived in the grandparent’s home.  Additionally, among children younger than 5 whose mothers were employed, 30% were cared for, on a regular basis, by a grandparent during their mother’s working hours in 2005 (US, 2010). Research indicates that the multigeneration housing phenomenon is increasing due to a variety of factors including economics, child care benefits, preventing elder isolation, family dysfunction connected to teen pregnancy, substance abuse, etc.  PEW Charitable Trust research found that in 2015 the number of grandparents solely responsible for the care of grandchildren had risen to 2.9 million (Wiltz, 2016).

All this data resonates with the composition of today’s home visitor caseloads, doesn’t it?  Most home visiting models are designed to integrate services focusing on addressing the needs of the whole family. This multigeneration approach supports inclusiveness of all family members from a programmatic and cultural perspective. However, it can sometimes be challenging for home visitors when it comes to addressing sensitive topics such as parenting, role clarification, making decisions about childcare practices--- in other words, “who does what” when it comes to the baby and child care decisions, in addition to providing financial support and responsibility for  other household tasks.

Your Growing Great Families manual includes two modules specific to 3-Generation Families.  The modules are intentionally designed to approach sensitive intergenerational topics, while exploring strategies families might consider for promoting more harmony in their home. The conversation guides provided encourage families to reflect on how healthier relationships between parents and grandparents, and a better balance with caregiving might benefit the child and all of his/her caregivers. Let’s take a moment now to spotlight these modules:

  • Becoming a 3-Generation Family- This module is the first in the series designed to explore initial feelings and concerns young parents and grandparents experience upon learning of an unexpected pregnancy; increase understanding and build a more positive relationship by pointing out common feelings and goals parents and grandparents have for the new baby; and to increase positive connections between parents and grandparents by sharing meaningful affirmations with each other.  This Conversation Guide also incorporates a couple of handouts to support parents to give each other more affirmations and appreciation messages.


  • Role Clarification in 3-Generation Families- This module is meant to be used as a follow up to the Becoming a 3-Generation Family and Protecting Your Children from Toxic Stress modules.  This Conversation Guide explores several important topics including changing the “emotional tone” of relationships; old and new ways: making decisions about infant care; grandparenting styles; and role clarification. This module also includes great handouts to explore grandparenting styles and a plan for creating a healthier balance with caregiving.

Check-out this GGF 2 -Modules Series along with their corresponding handouts! Share with your families and remind them of the following:

“Children learn the most about life and how to live it from the day-to-day interactions they experience and observe as they grow up.  Brain research has shown that an infant’s brain stores memories of all these experiences.  We know positive memories will contribute to the child’s long-term happiness and success.”

Works Cited: (April 2013). Home and Family: Three Generations Under One Roof Bulletin by Sally Abrahms. Retrieved from

US (2010). Profile America Facts: Grandchildren. Retrieved from

Wiltz, T. (2016, November 2). Why More Grandparents are Raising Children. Retrieved from PEW Charitable Trusts:

Partnering with families is at the heart of the Growing Great Kids Curriculum. Today’s Great Vine blog is devoted to one of the most important and useful modules for Partnering with families---Successes and Next Steps. We will review this module’s design and structure, content, and how to use with families to enhance our partnering relationship with them.  We will also discuss literature around partnering with families, the power of acknowledgment, and the reflective component of our conversations with parents.  Finally, we’ll conclude with a brief discussion on how to grow home visiting partnership skills during supervision.

Each quarter, parents annext steps cropd home visitors complete the Successes and Next Steps module along with the GGK Tool.   This quarterly review offers families the opportunity to reflect on their parenting skill building process, the knowledge they have gained around child development, family functioning, and protective factors. It also gives them a chance to think about how they are practicing their new skills to support their family and grow their personal successes.  The Successes and Next Steps
conversation guide and The GGK Tool provide a structured format for home visitors to acknowledge family members for their accomplishments and to explore new interests and skills they would like to grow over the next three months.

The Successes and Next Steps conversation guide and The GGK Tool are intentionally crafted to support in-depth conversations around growing skills related to each Daily Do. This also provides the opportunity to reflect on child development screening findings, parents’ management of family sufficiency, expanded life skills, while reviewing progress on family goals. Through this reflective process, home visitors and families determine how they wish to use the Growing Great Kids Curriculum Components during the next quarter.

Now let’s spend a few minutes reviewing the research behind this essential GGK curricula component.  Partnering with families has different names; in health care, it is referred to as family centered; in mental health, family driven; and in social work, relationship based. Regardless of the name, these concepts share the following core principle as professionals intentionally partner with families: (1) seeking family input, (2) viewing the family as the primary expert on the child, and (3) responding to family concerns and needs in a strength-based manner that incorporates the philosophical, cultural, values, and unique needs of the family and individual (Goldfarb, 2010).

This approach is about understanding that each family may need information presented in a different way, and with a different frequency. It is only through a team effort that you and the family can evaluate options and decide together what will work best in each situation, with a genuine willingness to listen and learn about the family’s motivation(s) for growth. The Successes and Next Steps conversation guide, to be used every 3 months with families, encourages parents to be active participants and decision makers in determining “how” and “what” pieces of the GGK Curriculum would be most beneficial to them. This is also a great time to talk about the pacing that would be right for them during the next three months.

Another important component of connecting with families is incorporating acknowledgment and recognition in our conversations with them. Taking the time to acknowledge others is about making a meaningful impact on a human being.  A few genuine words of acknowledgment and recognition brightens anyone’s day, but most importantly it can translate into increased motivation, higher self-esteem, and more confidence in taking on new challenges ( 2013). The Successes and Next Steps module is about acknowledging parents’ successes by pointing out specific accomplishments through the 3-step Accentuating the Positive (ATP) Action Tool during the conversation. This practice reinforces the home visitor-parent relationship. As parents see that their efforts are being noticed and appreciated they not only feel proud of themselves as individuals and parents BUT ALSO, strengthen their commitment to the partnership with their home visitor.

Partnering with families, as well as offering ATPs, requires reflection on the part of the home visitor. It is important to reflect on what personal and professional experiences, values, and feelings are supporting you, as a home visitor, in building a healthier professional relationship with family members and/or what is getting in the way of having positive interactions with them.   This practice will only be true and relevant when you can be fully present and connected during your interactions with families.  The Successes and Next Steps module also provides insights for the home visitor’s areas of growth as new GGK topics are explored with each family.

We will wrap up our discussion with encouraging the use of the supervision process to continue growing your partnership skills with families.  Supervision is the ideal place to discuss how you feel about your relationships with families, specific concerns, and how to support families through active partnership as they find solutions to their problems.  Remember… your role as a home visitor is to partner with families as they make informed decisions. It is their journey!

Works Cited:

Goldfarb, F. D., Devine, Kl, Yingling, J.T., Hill, A., Moss, J., Ogburn, E.S., & Pariseau, C. (2010). Partnering with Professionals: Family-Centered Care from the Parent Perspective. Journal of Family Social Work, 13(2), 91-99. DOI: 10.1080/10522150903487081. (2013). Leadership: Feeling Appreciated? Why It Can Make All the Difference by Margie Warrell. Published online on 5/16/2013. Retrieved from

mother and baby

Pregnancy is a natural state that is usually experienced as a happy, healthy, and exciting time for expecting parents.  Undoubtedly, it is also a period of significant changes in parents’ physical, emotional, mental, and even financial lifestyles as they adapt to meet the needs of a new baby. These adjustments, along with the typical hormonal changes that a mother-to-be experiences may trigger both major and minor depressive symptoms, beginning during prenatally and lasting up to twelve months post-birth.  Research has informed us that fathers-to-be may also experience depression prenatally and postnatally. However, distinguishing between symptoms of depression and normal responses to stressful experiences of pregnancy can be challenging for parents and their home visitors. Additionally, parents often find themselves feeling embarrassed  or shy about openly expressing their feelings of sadness or anxiety during pregnancy or right after birth due to fear of being judged. Let’s spend some time exploring the benefits of supporting your program families to enhance their understanding of pre-natal and post-partum depression. We’ll also review some strategies for encouraging them to seek treatment as needed.

According to Tiffany Field, the interaction disturbances of depressed parents and their infants appear to be universal. Regardless of culture or socioeconomic status groups, depressed mothers exhibit less sensitivity and responsivity in their relationships with their babies. In her study, Field indicated that the caregiving activities that get compromised by postpartum depression across all cultures include feeding practices, most especially breastfeeding, sleep routines, well-child visits, vaccinations, and safety practices (Field, 2010). This tells us that there is a great risk to child development when a parent experiences prenatal and/or postnatal depression.

There is extensive research on the effects of maternal depression on both parents and children.  Some of the effects on parents include failure to respond to infant cues and signals, emotional and physical disconnection from the infant. Parents engage less in vocalization, smiling, imitation, eye contact, and in general, there appears to be lack of feelings of joy toward the infant.  Their interactions tend to be overly intrusive or under-stimulating, and in extreme situations there is fear of harming or actually harming the infant.  The effects of maternal depression on the developing baby include a higher risk of low-term births, lower birth weight babies, higher risks for developmental delays especially in language and motor domains, excessive crying, challenges in adapting to sleep routines, failure to thrive and general feeding problems, among many other risks (Field, 2010)

When parents are depressed, they are unable to be emotionally available to their infant’s physical, emotional, and intellectual stimulation needs. When parents do not receive professional support to treat prenatal and/or postnatal depression, the long-term effects of detached parent-child interactions can give rise to insecure attachments. When young children experience insecure attachments, they display fear, distrust, anxiety, distress, and long-term adverse effects on their brain development, behavioral problems, and relationship challenges (Center for the Study of Social Policy, 2015).

Unfortunately, many expecting parents who recognize they might be experiencing symptoms of prenatal/postnatal depression may be unwilling to express openly their feelings due to fear of being judged as not being good parents.  Some parents go through this phase hoping that the symptoms will soon pass.  As home visitors, our role is to create opportunities for parents to feel safe sharing their feelings in a nonjudgmental environment.
Growing Great Kids Prenatal (GGK) and the Growing Great Families (GGF) curriculum manuals provide a variety of conversation guides to support parents’ increased understanding of depression and its effects, contributors and also indicators of depression. The introduction of modules and tools, aimed at assisting parents in reducing their stress are also valuable resources.  These modules are designed to help parents create awareness of their personal strengths and how they can use them to find solutions to the challenging circumstances they are facing.  Check out the following modules…

Growing Great Kids Prenatal Modules:

Unit 2:

  • Module 3: Prenatal Depression in Moms and Dads is Not Uncommon
  • Module 9: Dads’ Module 3: Driver’s Course for Dads

Unit 4:

  • Module 2: Power Down Stress…Power Up HappinessaH

Growing Great Families Modules:

Unit 2:

  • Module 1: Protecting  Your Children From Toxic Stress
  • Module 2:  Sizing Up Your Strengths… Reducing  Stress
  • Module 3:  Becoming Your Own Personal Coach
  • Module 6: Communicating Effectively…It’s More Than Texting/Talking
  • Module 7: The Power of Appreciation
  • Module 8: Problem Talk…A Problem Solving Skill
  • Module 9: Growing Your Support Network: Strengthening Protective Buffers

GGK is unique in that it provides conversation guides for home visitors and parents to engage in meaningful discussions and activities aimed at growing secure attachments both prenatally and post-birth. These discussions often result in parents feeling less stressed, more positive and hopeful, and more empowered to be open about sharing their feelings and potential risks for depression. When this occurs, home visitors have the opportunity to assess their needs and connect parents with professional support. Supporting families in this way allows them to create the life they want for themselves and their children.  Let’s capture this critical window of opportunity!


Works Cited:

Field, T. (2010). Postpartum Depression Effects on Early Interactions, Parenting, and Safety Practices: A Review. Infant Behavior & Development, 33(1), 1.

Field, T. (2010). Prenatal Depression Effects on Early Development: A Review. Infant Behavior & Development, 34(2011), 1-14.

Center for the Study of Social Policy (2015). Strengthening Families: A Protective Factors Framework. 1575 Eye Street N.W., Suite 500, Washington, DC 20005.

mindful parenting

As we all work to recover from one of the busiest times of the year, we will devote our first blog of 2017 to the concept of “mindfulness.” Specifically, let’s think about mindfulness from the perspective of parenting and its association with parent-child relationships.  We will explore research-based information about the topic, the value of creating and/or raising awareness about mindful parenting in parent-child interactions, and review practical tips for integrating mindfulness into home visiting. We will conclude with a discussion around the various GGK resources and strategies that are effective tools for supporting parents to “be present in the moment” with their child, while paying attention to how they are cultivating emotional awareness and self-regulation.

Dr. Jon Kabat-Zinn provides us with a definition of mindfulness; “the awareness that arises through “paying attention in a particular way, on purpose, in the present moment, nonjudgmentally (Kabat-Zinn, 2003). Dr. Kabat-Zinn has helped us understand that even though mindfulness is rooted in Buddhist practice, mindfulness is considered to be a capacity inherent to humans independent of any affiliation with religion. He pioneered research into mindfulness-based stress reduction as an intervention to support hospital patients with managing pain associated with physical problems, such as, hypertension and heart disease, among many other health and psychological problems.

There are presently countless other applications for mindfulness with documented evidence-based benefits. So, how might mindfulness relate to parenting practices? In 2009, Dr. Duncan and a group of colleagues expanded on Dr. Kabat-Zinn’s definition of mindfulness by introducing a model of mindful parenting (Duncan, et. al., 2009).  Their model represents a framework whereby parents intentionally bring moment-to-moment awareness to their parent-child interactions. This practice focuses on the parent’s ability to observe and listen with full attention when interacting with their child. This cultivates emotional awareness and self-regulation in parents, as well as bringing compassion and nonjudgmental acceptance to their parenting interactions (Duncan, et. al., 2009). Their research suggests that integrating mindful awareness into parent-child interactions, allows parents to view the “here and now” experience of parenting within the context of the long-term outcomes for their child. By being aware of and accepting their child’s needs, feelings, and emotions, parents can gain satisfaction and enjoyment in the parent-child relationship. It was concluded that mindfulness practices promote open, trusting, higher quality family relationships that lead to healthy social child development.

Mindful parenting involves truly “being present” frequently throughout each day as parent-child interactions unfold. When parenting mindfully, the parent brings awareness to his/her own actions ( e. g. touch, eye contact, movements, breathing), physical state and emotions as he/she is observing and reflecting on the child’s cues, physical appearance, emotional state and every interaction with the parent. When parenting mindfully, the parent is not thinking about: where she is going next; who has just sent a text and what that text says; why he needs to hurry; or how many more points her team needs to score to win the game. Being mindful enables parents to slow down, observe, reflect, think and  then decide how best to respond, rather than being driven by emotions that too often result in getting out of sync with a child’s needs.

Now, let’s take a few moments to discuss how we, as home visitors, can support more intentional, mindful parenting in our families by incorporating Growing Great Kids-Families parenting practices and reflections into daily family routines and parenting interactions.

  • Practice E-Parenting during Every Visit: This Parenting Daily Do is foundational to mindful parenting because it requires parents to be present for seeing the world through their child’s eyes, as they ask themselves, “What is my child experiencing right now”? An E-Parenter uses all of his/her senses to figure out the answer to this question…She looks, listens, smells and will sometimes touch or taste too.  It takes a parent feeling with his/her heart to step into a child’s experience. E-Parenting entails slowing down, being present in the moment and reflecting    on what to do right now to share in the child’s experience or to help the child regulate her emotions. This process naturally increases mindful parenting awareness.
  • Encourage Parents To Establish Routines: Routines, such as feeding/family meals, bath time, bedtime songs/reading/prayers, and outdoor play   are opportunities for mindful parent-child interactions. Be sure to introduce parents to GGK subsections that explain the importance and value of incorporating consistent routines into their family life. As you observe families establishing predictable routines, point out how they are helping their children feel secure and protected. Then ask them for examples of what else they could do during these routines to be more present with their child and to have even more fun together as a family.
  •  Frequently Touch Back To What I’d Like For My Child and Our Family Values: Reflecting on the characteristics parents have identified as wanting their child to have and the values that will give strength to their family can support parents to be more mindful in their parenting interactions. To encourage more intentional, mindful parenting, accompany these touch backs with the question, “What is one parenting interaction you can really focus on for a few minutes every day this week to bring just one of these characteristics or values to life?”
  • Increase Awareness Of How Electronic Devices Can Disrupt Positive Parenting Interactions: As you observe a parent’s use of an electronic device drawing his/her attention away from a meaningful parent-child interaction, point out your observation and ask the parent    to reflect on their child’s responsive cues and signals. Then say something such as, I wonder what message (child’s name) will be receiving if this happens again and again, day-after-day and month-after-month…What do you think…What are your concerns? What ideas do you have for keeping these “my device is more important” messages at a minimum? Likewise, be sure to notice when a parent is choosing to be present with his/her child when his/her device is beckoning by offering a Strategic Accentuating The Positives.

So many of the components of the Growing Great Kids and Growing Great Families Curricula are designed to support mindful parenting awareness.  They are intentionally crafted to allow parents to reflect on what each topic means to them within the context of their parent-child relationship, family dynamics, culture, traditions, and values. When parents incorporate intentional, mindful parenting practices they are helping their children to feel loved and valued, safe and secure, and capable and curious. We know that by strengthening the parent-child relationship, we’re optimizing the child’s chances for a happy, healthy life…When this happens, everyone wins!


Works Cited:


Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: Past Present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 144-156. http://doi:10.1093/clipsy/bpg016

Duncan, L. G., Coatsworth, J. D., & Greenberg, M. T. (2009). A model of mindful parenting: Implications for parent-child relationships and prevention research. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 12(3), 255-70. doi:


The holidays are exciting times of the year for parents and children, but it can also be very stressful if safety is not included on the top of the list of a family’s holiday priorities.  Today’s blog is devoted to tips and recommendations for keeping infants and young children safe while enjoying celebrations, gatherings, traveling, shopping trips and more. Did you know that the Growing Great Kids Curriculum includes conversation guides to explore preventive safety practices? Today we will review them and discuss how to use them, so parents get the most out of those conversations.  We will conclude with a few national/hotline resources that could be shared with parents during your December home visits in preparation for the holidays.

There are many safety dangers for infants and young children during the holidays including: unsupervised exposure to Christmas trees, lights, decorations, food, fireplaces and kitchen appliances. Toys, travel, unfamiliar pets and shopping pose increased risks for young children during the holiday season. To help ensure a safe holiday season, Great Kids, Inc. and the American Academy of Pediatrics provides the following recommendations (, 2015):

Christmas Tree

  • When purchasing an artificial tree, make sure it’s fire resistant, and if it is used be sure the lights are in proper working order.  When buying a live tree, check for freshness.  When setting up the tree, place it away from fireplaces, radiators, or portable heaters.  Place the tree out of the way of traffic and do not block doorways. Hang ornaments above your child’s reach to prevent trees falling over and/or fragile ornaments from breaking in the child’s hands. If your baby is crawling or walking, consider putting a protective fence around the tree.

Holiday Lights

  • Check all lights for safety before hanging them. Position cords to be out of the reach of infants and young children. Never use electric lights on a metallic tree. The tree can become charged with electricity from faulty lights, and a person touching a branch could be electrocuted. Make sure lights themselves are out of the reach of your children. And, turn off all lights when you go to bed or leave the house.

Decorations and Gift Wrapping

  • Use only decorations that are child-friendly, non-breakable that are made from non-combustible or flame-resistant materials. Avoid decorations that have sharp edges anddecorations that resemble candy or food as children may be tempted to eat them.
  • Remove any wrapping papers, bags, ribbons, and bows after gifts are opened. These items may cause suffocation and/or choking hazards.
  • Keep holiday plants that may be potentially poisonous away from children.


  • Purchase “flameless”, battery operated candles.  It is best not to use lighted candles anywhere, and especially not on or near a tree or wreath. If you are visiting a home in which candles are burning, be certain they are out of the reach of your child.


  • Young children frequently swallow and/or choke on small, toxic batteries and little game/toy pieces. Check all toys and their packaging, removing small parts and loose batteries before allowing your child to play with the toy.
  • Balloons are not safe for young children to play with because they can choke or suffocate on uninflated or broken balloons.
  • Remove tags, strings, and ribbons from toys before giving to young children. Toys with strings that are more than 12 inches in length are not safe for infants because they pose a strangulation hazard for babies.

Foods and beverages

  • Be sure to keep alcoholic beverages, foods unsafe for infants/toddlers to consume and hot liquids and foods away from the edges of counters and tables, where they can be consumed or easily knocked over by a young child’s exploring hands.
  • Fully cook meats and poultry, and wash raw vegetables and fruits to remove bacteria.
  • Never allow young children to be close to kitchen appliances when they are in use.


  • Always make sure your infant/young children are secured in an weight-appropriate child safety seat, booster seat, or seat belt, insuring that the safety seat has been correctly positioned and secured.
  •  Never drive under the influence of alcohol or drugs.
  • Be careful when driving at night especially during the holidays, there is a higher incidence of impaired driving.


  • Never leave your child unattended.  While shopping, pay attention to where your child is, what is happening at the moment and be mindful of how you and your infant/young children are feeling about the experience. If your child is sending ‘I’ve had enough or I’m hungry or tired signals, “it’s time to take a break or go home.

Holiday Gatherings

  • Try to stick to your child’s usual routines, including sleep and eating schedules.
  • Decrease stranger anxiety by keeping your infant at a safe distance from people. Infants and young children often get overwhelmed when exposed to many people, lights, sounds, and activities without a break and quiet times in between.
  • Wash your hands frequently. Make sure your children, and anyone who wants to hold your baby, does the same.
  • During cold and flu season, to prevent your baby from catching a cold or the flu, do not encourage others to touch, breathe on or hold your baby. Instead encourage them to interact with the baby from a safe distance.

For general infant-child safety tips and conversation guides included in the Growing Great Kids curriculum, Home Visitors can check out the following references:

  • 0-3-month Infant Safety. This module subsection provides safety references and handouts around sleeping, clothing, toys, baby equipment, feeding, health, and safety in general.
  • 7-9-month Home Safety Checklist for Families with babies 6 months and older.
  • 10-12-month Preventing Toddler Injuries.  This subsection explores common injuries toddlers experience and how to prevent them.
  • 13-15-month Safe and Healthy Environments for Toddlers
  • 25-30-month Car Safety

Home visits during the holiday season are an ideal time for planning to incorporate discussions around preventive safety practices.  The Growing Great Kids conversation guides are presented using a strength-based, solution-focused approach to support parents as they enhance their child safety critical thinking and problem-solving abilities.

And, you might want to remind financially stressed parents that a child’s best gift is feeling safe & secure, love & valued and curious & capable…The only costs associated with this gift  are the parent’s time, effort and love.

The following sources include additional, useful holiday tips for child safety. Check them out and pass them on to families:

Works Cited: (November 17, 2015). Healthy Children: Holiday Safety and Mental Health Tips. Retrieved from



We’ll start today’s post with a story that was recently shared with us. It’s the story of a family who, as a result of having interacted with GGK Modules and Child Development Activities during their home visiting support services, reported the joy they are experiencing as they care for and interact with their baby.

When these parents were then asked about their favorite part of the day with their child, mom described in great detail how she loves to hold her child. “He puts his left arm around my neck and uses his finger to slowly trace my neck, as he falls asleep in my arms.” Dad’s eyes teared up as he listened attentively to mom’s story. He then said, My favorite part of the day is when I come home from work and baby welcomes me with a smile.”

At first these parents were fearful of participating in the home visiting program and had difficulty trusting their home visitor. The family had many challenges in their life.  Both parents struggled with developmental delays and were afraid that their baby was going to be removed from their care. Through routine home visits and support they have learned about child development, bonding, attachment, how to play with their baby, and the importance of self-care.  At this time, Dad has maintained employment for over a year at a local grocery store, and Mom is attending GED classes during the evenings. By finding many opportunities to create joyful experiences with their baby, both parents have blossomed into confident, caring, loving parents. It appears that their new found confidence in their parenting has also contributed to their ability to work toward personal goals for themselves.

Now let’s spend some time talking about how such joyful experiences impact our brains even during our adult life. As in all of our blogs, we will support our discussion with the latest research on this topic, in addition to referencing 7 GGK key ingredients of home visits, as we aim to support you in making your interactions with families fun, engaging, and informative. As demonstrated by our opening story, it’s magical when you can support parents in finding the real joy of parenting!

During the past decade, research has revealed that contrary to assumptions that changes in brain networks are possible only during crucial periods of development, the brain is permanently plastic (Arne, 2011).  In other words, experiences, changes to our environment or learning new skills can actually reorganize the structure of our brain (Arne, 2011). Scientists use the term neuroplasticity to refer to the brain’s ability to reorganize itself.  Neuroplasticity is not a new concept, but with the development of modern technology that allows us to actually see into the brain, science has confirmed the ability of our brains to “re-wire.”  It’s this impressive ability of our brains that allows us to continue to learn new things, and bounce back from damage caused by stroke or injury, even conditions such as autism, ADHD, learning disabilities, depression, and addictions (Hampton, 2015).

How does this neuroplasticity impact our work with families? Every home visit is an opportunity to help parents re-wire their brains as they learn new parenting and life skills.  For these brain changes to occur, parents will need to experience lots of positive interactions and practice new skills over and over again. Scientists call this “experience-dependent neural plasticity” (Arne, 2011), we just call it excellent Home Visiting! Parents will benefit in many ways from your smiles, support, shared laughter as they play with their baby, encouragement, and reassurance – Every home visit provides amazing opportunities to connect families’ interests and motivations with what they want to accomplish, through fun activities and joyful experiences in their relationship with each other, their child, and you.

According to Dr. Bruce Perry in his Cycle of Learning and Mastery, when we experience pleasure during an activity, we want to repeat that experience. With repetition, comes mastery and mastery provides a sense of accomplishment, pleasure, and confidence to act once again on curiosity (Perry,, 2000). What does this mean for you as a Home Visitor? Visits should be FUN…for everyone involved! In order to achieve the desired program outcome, families must be engaged. It’s the pleasure of the visits and their relationship with you that will keep them around and involved in your services.

Keep in mind these 7 Key Ingredients for meaningful, informative, and pleasurable home visits:

1)      Intention: Have a plan for your visit – know what you are aiming for; plan ahead for 2-3 things you want to accomplish during your home visit; AND be prepared to engage parent-child in a fun activity.

2)      Interactions with the parent that communicate “I care about you, and I enjoy being with you” - Listen to hear…not just to respond. Really hear parents’ feelings and opinions; communicate “I’ve been looking forward to being with you today”; create opportunities for parents to experience joy.

3)      Check in on the family’s accomplishments since your last visit – What information and skills have they put into practice; check in on their goal-related progress, communicating interest; look for the positives in all the things they do and accentuate them!

4)      Link their values and dreams to how they are interacting with their child now – Connect the family’s culture and traditions with strengthening their parenting and guiding their lifestyle choices; explore GGK curriculum topics of interests to parents.

5)      Provide opportunities for parents to learn how to support their child’s development – Be prepared to do GGK activities to teach parents how to stimulate their child’s growth across developmental domains; take advantage of teachable moments.

6)      Cultivate a parenting skill aimed at strengthening the attachment relationship – Acknowledge parents for understanding and responding sensitively to their child’s cues and needs; point out to the parents the joy they are experiencing as they are caring and playing with their child

7)      Connect your visit with “real-time” parenting that will take place between now and your next visit – Before your visit ends, ask parents how they will put into practice 2 to 3 bits of information or skills you have been focusing on, between now and your next visit.  Remember repetition leads to mastery!

The Growing Great Kids/Growing Great Families Curriculum materials are your tools for building the joy-filled parent-child interactions that motivate empathic parenting and give parents hope for the future. Busy Home Visitors have a tendency to get stuck using the same Modules and Child Development Activities, overlooking other rich opportunities for bringing curiosity, fun and new perspectives into their visits-Would you be open to, right now, finding 2 new modules and 2 new activities to try out later this week? We hope so!

Works Cited:

Arne, M. (2011). Experience-dependent Structural Plasticity in the Adult Human Brain. Department of Systems Neuroscience, University of Clinic Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany. Published in Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Vol. 15, No. 10. Retrieved from

Hampton, D. (2015). Neuroplasticity: The 10 Fundamentals of Rewiring the Brain. Published Online on October 25, 2015 by Retrieved from

Perry, B.D., Hogan, L., Marlin, S., (2000). Curiosity, Pleasure and Play: A Neurodevelopment Perspective. HAAEYC Advocate Pages 9-11, August 2000.


In today’s blog, we will explore a topic of interest to all new parents – crying babies and how to console them. We know babies cry for different reasons, and most parents recognize that babies’ crying sounds different in different situations.  Certainly, as parents, we experience many different feelings when we hear our babies cry. How normal is baby’s crying? Is there a difference between “normal” and “excessive” crying? What does the Period of PURPLE Crying mean? We will start our discussion with what experts have to say about these questions. Then, we will explore why comforting a baby might be more important than getting the crying to stop. Crying is the only way infants communicate their needs. When a baby feels that her/his needs are attended to in nurturing and loving ways, they start building secure attachment relationships. Lastly, we will discuss some of the relevant GGK tools to help parents support the development of secure attachment relationships during routine care and daily parent-child interactions.

Infants’ crying is viewed as a normal part of neurodevelopment. Fussing, crying, and inconsolable crying follows a typical curve that increases weekly, peaks during the sixth week postpartum at a stable duration of approximately 2 hours per day, and declines to below 1 hour per day by the 3rd or 4th month.  Although crying may happen at any time of the day or night, it seems to have the propensity to occur in late afternoon or evening. Excessive or problematic crying is defined as crying behavior that occurs more than 3 hours a day, more than 3 days in any week, for at least 3 weeks, without any obvious cause. The unexplained reason of excessive baby crying is what concerns and stresses parents out. Unfortunately, excessive crying has been connected with Shaking Baby Syndrome, child abuse, parental distress, and depression, among many other negative health consequences for infants and parents (Akhnikh, et al. 2014).

In 2007, Dr. Ronald G. Barr in collaboration with Marilyn Barr developed the Period of PURPLE Crying. Dr. Barr is Professor of Pediatrics at the University of British Columbia. The Period of PURPLE Crying does not mean that the baby turns purple while crying but rather is the acronym to describe colic and excessive crying. The program is intended to help parents understand normal crying behavior, and what parents and babies go through when babies experience excessive crying and seem to resist soothing – which is a normal phase of every infant’s development (, 2016).

According to Dr. Barr (2016), all babies go through the Period of PURPLE Crying; some babies cry a lot and some far less, but they all go through it (, 2016). PURPLE stands for:

P: Peak of crying – Your baby may cry more each week; the most at two months, then               less at 3 to 5 months.

U: Unexpected – Crying can come and go, and you don’t know why.

R: Resists soothing – Your baby may not stop crying no matter what you try to do.

P: Pain-like face – A crying baby may look like they are in pain, even when they are not.

L: Long-lasting – Crying can last as much as five hours a day, or more.

E: Evening – Your baby may cry more in the late afternoon and/or evening.

When babies come into this world, their only means of communicating their feelings and distresses is through crying. Thus, crying is a way of securing an empathic response from the parent/caregiver. When babies receive what they need, they feel loved and secure, and they learn that they can depend on their parent/caregiver. Parents’ capacity to respond in nurturing ways depends on their ability to feel empathy for what the baby is experiencing.

GGK has several tools to support parents to grow empathic parenting skills. Today, we will spotlight the Getting in Sync and E-Parenting Daily Do. Getting in Sync is an attachment tool designed to support parents to read their baby’s cues and signals. When parents are able to read cues and sync up emotionally with their babies, they respond in loving and supporting ways. The E-Parenting Daily Do is a strategy intended for parents to grow empathic parenting skills and self-regulation in children. Remember that the “E” in E-Parenting stands for Empathy – this Daily Do describes 3 steps for parents that are easy to put in practice every day within routine care and parent-child interactions. Basically, the Getting in Sync and E-Parenting Daily Do tools are inter-connected; they are both intended to enhance empathic parenting skills.

Managing infants’ excessive crying is not easy! Sometimes infant crying has no medical reason, and new parents are often tired and stressed. What babies need most during this phase is for parents to meet their pressing needs and if nothing seems to help… remaining calm and relaxed would probably be one of the best approaches. As a Home Visitor, helping parents identify their support systems (family, friends, neighbors, parent hotline, etc.) so they can reach out to them when needed, will be extremely important.

Parents will also greatly benefit from reassurance and support from you in growing empathic parenting skills. Remember when parents put Getting in Sync and E-Parenting into practice many times each day, they are helping their baby build secure attachment relationships- and this is much more important than getting the crying to stop.


Works Cited:

Akhnikh, S., M.D., Engelberts, Adèle C,M.D., PhD., van Sleuwen, Bregje E, PhD, L'Hoir, M. P., PhD, & Benninga, Marc A,M.D., PhD. (2014). The excessively crying infant: Etiology and treatment. Pediatric Annals, 43(4), e69-75.

The Period of PURPLE Crying 2016). What is the Period of Purple Crying? Retrieved from